The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Many left church and synagogue not because they had lost interest in spirituality, but because organized religion was not meeting their spiritual needs. Spiritual development is a required component for quality early childhood education. It's about seeing the sacred in our lives--and opening the door to a life of passion and depth. "All the religions are true," says George Lucas, who plays on religious themes such as good and evil in his blockbuster Star Wars series. Here is a sampling, according to some researchers, of what a dose of spirituality can do for you. From the rain dances of Native Americans to the celebratory dances of Hasidic Jews, from the whirling dervishes of Islam to the meditating monks of Zen Buddhism, from the ecstatic worship services of charismatic churches to the solemn, silent meetings of the Quakers, spirituality takes on many expressions. But this rekindling of interest is not only a return to traditional religion. Many “religious” people who have blind faith in a spiritual being without question may also be at this point. undermine the spiritual lives of young people (p. 11). Recently, however, The National Institute of Health Care Research, a nonprofit organization, began awarding grants up to $15,000 in support of academic projects exploring spirituality and psychiatry. Self Transcendence-is the belief that there is a force outside of and greater than the person. Religiousness and spirituality differ significantly from other points in the continuum and things are not accepted on blind faith or out of fear. We obviously need a lot more research in order to encourage HMOs, therapists and patients to see the value of spiritual growth for one's mental health. This innate trait must be nurtured to flourish. The individual develops a deeper understanding of good and evil, forgiveness and mercy, compassion and love. "Religion is basically a container for faith. Why are so many people drawn to conspiracy theories in times of crisis? We have only recently begun to investigate the healing powers of religion and spirituality. This force goes beyond space and time f Spirituality offers a sense of connectedness intrapersonally (connected within oneself) Interpersonally (connected with others and the environment) and Transpers… Models of spiritual development follow the same basic outline of development. Then, I help them design a regular, structured program to incorporate these activities into their life. Spirituality means different things to different people. An introduction to various theories of spiritual development. He bases his stages on the work of Fowler. The more palatable but cynical explanation is the placebo effect: If patients really believe they will get well by going through a shamanic ritual, then a certain percentage of those individuals will improve simply because of their positive expectations. Adults who are good, law-abiding citizens may never move past this point. Even those who are sympathetic to religion are reluctant to give it wholehearted approval. Not only do they use herbal preparations, such as Echinacea, that many of us now rely on, but they also use rituals and procedures that surprisingly resemble contemporary psychotherapies: Shamans establish rapport; they diagnose the problem; they initiate a healing process that often involves sophisticated use of imagery, dream interpretation, self-regulation and group support, says Krippner. Mental health professionals have learned from their own clinical experience that Freud was at least partly right--religion can be neurotic. In general, it includes a sense of connection to something bigger than ourselves, and it typically involves a search for meaning in life. The word spirituality comes from the Latin root spiritus, which means "breath"--referring to the breath of life. Because spirituality is not just about healing. BUT SOME OF THE MOST RESPECTED INDIVIDUals in the history of psychology--William James, Gordon Allport, Erich Fromm, Viktor Frankl, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May--have made spirituality a major focus of their work. In his 1987 book The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace, M. Scott Peck discusses four stages of spiritual development. Spirituality is also a way of dealing with everyday challenges in life and … They begin as egocentric, move to conformist, and end at integration or universal belief. For some, it's primarily about a belief in God and active participation in organized religion. The theories of religion and spirituality in psychology and cognitive sciences. Get an idea of features of people with spirituality and religiousness. Devotional. Why Do Antiheroes Appeal to People With Dark Traits? Religion is one means to spiritual wellness and wholeness. spirituality is an inward expression, while religion is an outward expression of faith. Herbert Benson has demonstrated in his research that while chronic stress is harmful to the body, daily meditation (a form of spirituality) can reduce stress and promote relaxation and overall well-being. However, according to Stanley Krippner, Ph.D., professor of psychology at Saybrook Graduate School in San Francisco and a leading expert on shamanism, the fact that shamans have survived over the millennia suggests that "they are doing something useful.". IMMUNITY Research on 1,700 adults found that those who attend religious services were less likely to have elevated levels of interleukin-6, an immune substance prevalent in people with chronic diseases (International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 1997). As spirituality spreads, psychology can't decide to love it or leave it alone. Me, a grown 31-year-old man. David N. Elkins, Ph.D., is a licensed psychologist and professor of psychology in the Graduate School of Education and Psychology at Pepperdine University. (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001). Seven pathways are developed through which spirituality engenders a wide range of salutary outcomes. While it has been explored throughout human history as one of the three fundamental aspects of human beings (i.e., body, mind, spirit) (Huitt, 2003), there is widespread disagreement as to its origin, functioning, or even importance (Huitt, 2000). Tens of thousands of others have had the same idea: More than 29 new Kabbalah meeting places have opened in the last year around the country. It involves opening our hearts and cultivating our capacity to experience awe, reverence and gratitude. But they confirm that it plays some sort of role in their patients' mental health. fConcept Of Spirituality Spirituality gives individuals: Energy- needed to discover themselve, to cope with difficult situations, and to maintain health. Individuals have no care for rules and lack empathy for others. The aim of this paper is to highlight potential connections between two of these domains, cognition and spirituality, by applying recentconceptualizationsofcognitivedevelopmental theory to spiritual development. Abstract The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient’s needs and challenges. The Harvard Medical School of Continuing Education presents a course, "Spirituality and Healing in Medicine," that brings together religious scholars and medical leaders from around the world to discuss the role of spirituality in the treatment of illness and pain. Now in its fifth year, the course, under the direction of Herbert Benson, M.D., chief of the Division of Behavioral Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, attracts approximately 1,000 physicians, psychologists, nurses, clergy, social workers and health care administrators. And faith is a very important part of what allows us to remain stable, remain balanced." As an adult, Freud considered himself an atheist, but his Jewish background and upbringing and background played an important role in the development of his ideas. (Simon & Schuster, 1999), The Soul's Code, James Hillman (Random House, 1996), Everyday Sacred: A Woman's Journey Home, Sue Bender (HarperCollins, 1996). As such, it is a universal human experience—something that touches us all. Take Quantum Entanglement, for example, a strange phenomenon that Einst… The theory of spirituality referring to spiritual aspects taught to us by the members of Spiritual World Division through the mediator of spiritual beings, Divine Master Ruben Edera Ecleo Sr., the greatest teacher of Rubenian Era who made it possible to transfer spiritual knowledge to his followers. For the next two years, under the guise of psychotherapy, I was taught how to care for and feed my soul. This theoretical framework is a synthesis and elaboration upon the behavioral/cognitive approach to spirituality (Brown, Peterson, & Cunningham, 1988). Belief in spirits grew out of attempts to explain life and death. DEPRESSION Women with pious moms are 60% less likely to be depressed in 10 years than women whose mothers aren't so reverent, according to a Columbia University study. Spirituality is a difficult concept to define. This paper reviews recent theories and research in cognitive development and spirituality with the aim of providing connections between the two domains. At this stage, people’s behavior is chaotic and unstable. (Being in nature is one way to nurture spiritual development.) Many people working in a scientific and technical field may question spiritual or supernatural forces because they are difficult to measure or prove scientifically. While both Love and Nash attempt to define the terms, I feel there is more to understanding these important differences. Sigmund Freud is most famous for his psychoanalytic school of thought, but he also took a keen interest in religion. Madonna is just one of the many non-Jewish celebrities who say Kabbalah has transformed her life. It is hypothesized that spirituality is related to the broaden and build theory. Though not all positive emotions stimulate a self-transcendent state, some increase with practices in spirituality. FDT gives insight into spiritual and religious development using a non-sectarian approach. Many feel more comfortable referring clients struggling with these issues to a priest, pastor or rabbi. Indeed, new evidence shows that religious and spiritual interventions can help when everything else has failed. Many find spiritual fulfillment in music, poetry, literature, art, nature and intimate relationships. Human development is a lifelong process char- acterized by both predictable patterns and individual variation in multiple domains. It stands for something greater in life than the physical or material world. Chapter 1 describes in detail the Vibrational Dimensions or Realities where spirit and matter exist. "I felt there was something spiritually lacking," says actress/comedian Sandra Bernhard of her Jewish upbringing. A Christian might define spirituality as the quality of their relationship with Christ. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. The mental and emotional release, along with a sense of connection to a transcendent dimension, may be at the heart of prayer's effectiveness. Sarah Stich, a 16-year-old high school student in Colorado, checked out Kabbalah after seeing Madonna discuss her new passion on VH1, the music video channel. This type of interconnectedness spoken of in spiritual teachings is also demonstrated by science. I began to cry. Neo-Piagetian and postformal theories of cognitive … It's about the look of wonder on a child's face, the love we feel for a family member, the woods and fields after freshly fallen snow, the joy of soul-stirring music. And Carl Jung went so far as to say that spirituality was such an essential ingredient in psychological health that he could heal only those middle-age people who embraced a spiritual or religious perspective toward life. Matter is an illusion. Spirituality and Religion in the Workplace: History, Theory, and Research Margaret Benefiel Andover Newton Theological School Louis W. Fry and David Geigle Texas A&M University Central Texas The role of spirituality and religion in the workplace (SRW) is a relatively new area of inquiry that has I told my story, the one I had rehearsed, but he heard the truth anyway. They begin as egocentric, move to conformist, and end at integration or universal belief. If we understand how everything is interconnected, we can make better decisions and become more aware of what impacts we are having not just on a physical level, but on a mental level as well. Though the paths are different, all the spiritual people have similar characters. However, religion is often discussed in terms of spiritual and social wellness. Stich signed up for an adult class in the Jewish mystical tradition because she thought it might give her the spiritual tools she needed to make herself happy. Its aim: to bring about compassion. The Healing Power of Faith: Science Explores Medicine's Last Great Frontier, Harold G. Koenig, M.D. Research in body/mind medicine is showing that we can either support or obstruct the life force by our beliefs, emotions and behavior. Traditional conceptions of cognitive development have failed to account for changes in adult cognition as well as more subjective and intuitive features of human experience. PRAYER Prayer may be the oldest spiritual practice and the most popular one in America. Back when it was a new science, psychology tried to distance itself from theological explanations of behavior and to discover its own truths through scientific inquiry Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, even declared religion to be nothing but a form of pathology--an obsessional neurosis that grew out of feelings of infantile helplessness. Spiritual interventions heal--sometimes when traditional psychotherapy fails--because they untie the mental and emotional knots that prevent the life force from doing its work. Then, I will Near the end of the session, he said gently, "You are spiritually hungry." STRESS The Alameda County Study, which trails nearly 7,000 Californians, showed that West Coast worshippers who participate in church-sponsored activities are markedly less stressed over finances, health and other daily concerns than non-spiritual types (Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 1998). Television programs such as Bill Moyers' "Genesis: a Living Conversation" and Hugh Hewitt's "Searching for God in America" have attracted large audiences. The lack of models and theories for addressing spirituality in human develop-ment, after decades of life span development theory that did not include the spiritual, has created a need to identify and describe what constitutes spiritual development. I encourage clients and students to first figure out what moves them deeply--whether it's Beethoven, Garth Brooks or the Grateful Dead, a hike in the mountains, or a day in an art gallery. In this system, the shaman--a person attuned to the spiritual world--was the archetypal healer. It allows the assessment of clients’ spiritual development free from the specific content of any faith tradition. "And this is wonderful, as long as the `fad' aspect of it doesn't dilute the tradition's real meaning.". RECOVERY In a Duke University study, devout patients recovering from surgery spent an average of 11 days in the hospital compared with nonreligious patients who spent 25 days (Southern Medical Journal, 1998). An estimated 32 million baby boomers remain unaffiliated today, turning instead to Eastern practices, new age philosophies, Twelve Step programs, Greek mythology, Jungian psychology, shamanic practices, massage, yoga and a host of other traditions and practices. In the 1990s and as we approach the millennium, it is obvious that Americans are becoming more expressively spiritual. Spirituality is a personal experience that creates a system of personal beliefs when searching for the meaning of life. LIFESTYLE A recent review of several studies suggests that spirituality is linked with low suicide rates, less alcohol and drug abuse, less criminal behavior, fewer divorces and higher marital satisfaction (Religion and Clinical Practice, 1996). So like their forefathers, psychologists today are not unified on their attitude toward religion. RELAXATION AND MEDITATION "There is no greater source of strength and power for me in my life now than going still, being quiet and recognizing what real power is," says Oprah Winfrey on the segment of her daily television show called, "Remembering Your Spirit." A Duke University study of 577 men and women hospitalized for physical illness showed that the more patients used positive religious coping strategies (seeking spiritual support from friends and religious leaders, having faith in God, praying), the lower the level of their depressive symptoms and their quality of life (Journal of Mental and Nervous Disorders, 1998). Adults who do not move past this stage tend to engage in antisocial and/or criminal behavior because they cannot obey rules. It helps clients feel well and guides choices made throughout life. Because somewhere, deep inside, I knew he was right. Spirituality can involve a sense of "connectiveness" to the spiritual nature of the universe. The Spiritual Theory is divided in 2 major sections: Section I or The Spiritual Era and Section 2 or The Material Era. A Buddhist would have a different definition of spirituality. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man", oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. Harvard University is one pioneer in the field of spirituality and mental health. But within the last 10 years, Jewish mysticism, known as Kabbalah, has drawn many back into the fold. DURING THAT FIRST THERAPY SESSION 20 YEARS AGO HE LISTENED TO ME AS NO ONE had ever listened before. In this stage, you begin to realize that there is more to life than personal power and material … As the sun was setting, she climbed onto a boulder at the water's edge. But the lure of this medieval philosophy has transcended Jewish interest. Newspapers and national magazines, including Newsweek, Time and the New York Times Magazine publish stories on "Faith and Healing," "Science, God, and Man" and "Choosing My Religion.". Instead, the social, psychological, emotional, and spiritual components of human beings need to be addressed. The individual does not judge people harshly or seek to inflict punishment on them for their transgressions. The best explanation for the effectiveness of spiritual interventions, whether performed by ancient shamans or modem day therapists, is that they draw upon the healing power of our "life force": our body's natural inclination to survive. Theories of Spiritual Development - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Those who do engage in this skepticism move away from the simple, official doctrines. … ", Thousands of Jewish people left organized religion in the 1960s and 1970s. The scientist Carl Sagan wrote about his time-in-nature experience: "The wind whips through the canyons of the American Southwest, and there is no one to hear it but us. Psychologist Carl Jung on Spirituality. More and more Americans are finding in spirituality what they're looking for in therapy--healing techniques and new inspiration. Its effect: good physical and mental health. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. First, I will discuss the three concepts of faith, spirituality, and religion. "There is no real understanding of why you're Jewish without it.". Cultures around the world today still depend on shamans for most of their health care. MORTALITY Research on 1,931 older adults indicates that those who attend religious services regularly have a lower mortality rate. It felt good to be alive, to be part of all this. For thousands of years, long before the advent of modern medicine, people looked to spirituality for cures. According to the professors who teach the course, approximately 60 medical schools now offer related classes--five years ago there were only three. Most of us don't believe that shamanic ritual actually drives away evil spirits, along with our germs and diseases. Studies show that most Americans want spirituality, but perhaps not in religious form. Daughters belonging to the same religious denomination as their mothers are even less likely (71%) to suffer the blues; sons were 84% less likely (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1997). There are theoretical gaps to be filled. The word spirituality comes from the Latin root spiritus, which means "breath"--referring to the breath of life. Almost all world religions consider a form of it central to spiritual life. Section I or The Spiritual Era is composed of 7 chapters and 49 subthemes. takes into account cognitive and philosophic areas of thought as well as aspects of emotions and behavior To help narrow the search, consult Who Reads What?, an annual list of the favorite reads of celebrities, which is rich with suggestions. For Muhammed Ali, the Qu'ran is the best "spiritual, guiding book." Today's research may be cutting edge, but the idea that spirituality heals is nothing new. Spirituality relates more to your personal search, … "The new popularity of Kabbalah shows that people are searching for deeper meaning," says Dovid Brownstein, a Hasidic Jew who was raised on practical Kabbalistic wisdom. BLOOD PRESSURE Elderly folks in a Duke University study who attended religious services, prayed or read the Bible regularly, had lower blood pressure than their nonpracticing peers (International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 1998). Football coach Mike Ditka says the Bible puts everything in perspective for him. Primitive people used human dreams in which spirits seemed to appear as an indication that the human mind could exist independent of a body. These are the moments that feed our soul and make our lives worth living. Spirituality is a broad concept with room for many perspectives. When she was in her 40s, Bernhard's Brazilian fitness trainer introduced her to the Los Angeles Kabbalah Center. Four Great Ways to Begin Your Spiritual Journey. (American Journal of Public Health, 1998). I knew these things had gone on for millions of years before I came and that they would go on for millions of years after I'm gone. By David N. Elkins Ph.D. published September 1, 1999 - last reviewed on June 9, 2016. Psychology Today © 2020 Sussex Publishers, LLC, How I Controlled Communication With My Narcissistic Mother. Coparenting With an Ex: Battleground vs. Common Ground. Spirituality is the fastest growing--one of the only growing--sector of the publishing industry, with literally millions buying books on the theme. Even an agnostic can develop spirituality without a firm belief in Deity. This is the stage of loving others as one loves oneself, losing attachment to ego, and forgiving enemies. Spirituality is the wellspring of divinity that pulsates, dances, and flows as the source and essence of every soul. Get Started Interest is spreading. The person in this path is enjoying his life by spending time with his god or almighty. 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