Starting in the 1530s, Iceland, originally Catholic and under the Danish crown, formally switched to Lutheranism with the Icelandic Reformation, which culminated in 1550. Iceland is traditionally a matriarchal (led by women) society. More than 3100 (or 1% of the Icelandic population) joined the church. This is just the natural order of things. The Norsemen had rich cosmology with mythology and held festivals celebrating the “divine”. After one day and one night, he decided that, in order to keep peace, the population had to be united under one law and one religion, Christianity, and all the non-Christians among the population would have received baptism. [16] After the conversion, members of the goðorð often became Christian priests and bishops. [31], The largest Buddhist organisation in Iceland, the Buddhist Association of Iceland, had 1,117 members in 2019, or 0.31% of the population. Together they comprised about 0.31% of the population of Iceland. [2] The Lutheran Church of Iceland has remained since then the country's state church. The most notable phenomenon has been a rise of Neopagan religions, especially Heathenry, in Iceland also called Ásatrú, "truth of the gods", the return to Germanic religion. The former First Lady of Iceland, Dorrit Moussaieff, is a Bukharian Jew and is likely the most significant Jewish woman in Icelandic history. [4], When Iceland was first settled by Norwegians (but also by some Swedes and people from the Norse settlements in Britain[6]) in the mid-9th century, approximately in 870,[7] it was inhabited by a small number of Irish Christian anchorites known as papar (singular papi). [8] The migration of Norwegians was partly in response to the politics of Harald Fairhair, who was unifying Norway under a centralised monarchy. By Nikhil Budathoki on April 25 2017 in Society. In 1584 the first Icelandic translation of the Bible was published. Other people worshipped Freyr, as attested in the Víga-Glúms saga. Interior of the Lutheran cathedral of Skálholt. The able and energetic Gudbrandur Thorláksson, bishop of Hólar from 1571 to 1627, devoted his energies in improving church literature, clergy training and community education. The category of the "unaffiliated" comprises citizens who are not registered as members of any religious organisation. A religion based on beliefs from thousands of years ago is allowing some Icelandic citizens to avoid mandatory religious taxes. However, it took many decades for Lutheranism to be firmly established in Iceland. [1] Catholics are organised in the Diocese of Reykjavík, led by the bishop Dávid Bartimej Tencer (1963–), O.F.M. Soon Iceland was divided by Christians and Pagans and a civil war threatened the nation. One of the first, if not first, Sikh in Iceland was Manjit Singh. In late 2015, the Board of Directors of the Zuist Church was hijacked by people who were unrelated to the movement, and under the new leadership Zuism was turned into a medium for a protest against the state church and the Icelandic church tax (sóknargjald). There were 652 icelanders registered in the Buddhist Association in 2007. Reykjavík Free Church building in the foreground, and the Hallgrímskirkja in the background. Religion Religious Beliefs. After killing two men in a conflict, Thorvald escaped and fled from Iceland. 2. [11], The adoption of Christianity—which then was still identical to the Catholic Church—as the state religion (kristnitaka, literally the "taking of Christianity"[12]), and therefore the formal conversion of the entire population, was decided by the Althing in 999/1000,[9] pushed by the king of Norway, Olaf Tryggvason. In 1533, the Althing ordained that "all shall continue in the Holy Faith and the Law of God, which God has given to us, and which the Holy Fathers have confirmed". Cultural practices, language, dressing, sports, religion and environment are some of the most important. [1], Islam is the religion of a small minority in Iceland. The Icelandic thing developed peculiar characteristics; in place of the loyalty to a holy king, the Icelanders established the loyalty to a law code, first composed by Úlfljót who studied Norwegian laws. Don’t be surprised if you find someone burping, slurping, or farting in your general company. His mission was met with little success as he was mocked by the Pagans. Article 64: No one may lose any of his civil or national rights on account of his religion, nor may anyone refuse to perform any generally applicable civil duty on religious grounds. The goðar were part-time priests who officiated ritual sacrifices at the local temple and had some qualities of the Germanic kings; they organised local things and represented them at the Althing. In 2020, there were roughly 10,000 more male than female inhabitants. [18] In 1552 the Hólar diocese also accepted the Church Ordinance. The ministers of the church are civil servants and receive their salaries from the state. Article 62: The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the State Church in Iceland and, as such, it shall be supported and protected by the State. [15], The last two Catholic bishops of Iceland were Øgmundur Pállson of Skálholt and Jón Arason of Hólar. Younger people and … Religion in Iceland has been predominantly Christian since the adoption of Christianity as the state religion by the Althing under the influence of Olaf Tryggvason, the king of Norway, in 999/1000 CE. [1], As of 2019, 76.84% of the Icelandic people were registered as Christians, most of them belonging to the Church of Iceland and minor Lutheran free churches. It is recorded in the Eyrbyggja saga that as Norway was being Christianised, a pagan temple was dismantled there to be reassembled in Iceland. Other Buddhist organisations present in Iceland are the Soka Gakkai International (with 179 members), Zen in Iceland (with 172 members), and the Tibetan Buddhist Fellowship (with 17 members). The Church of Iceland is supported by the government, but all registered religions receive support from a church tax (sóknargjald) paid by taxpayers over the age of sixteen. Another 5% are registered in other Christian denominations, including the Free Church of Iceland and the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2020 they had 377 members (0.1% of the population) and 742 members (0.20%), respectively. [19], Since the end of the 19th century, Iceland has been more open to new religious ideas than many other European countries. Other Lutherans constitute 3.1 percent of the population, Catholics 0.9 percent, and others 3.8 percent. Irreligion is prevalent in Iceland, with approximately 10% of the population identifying as "convinced atheists" and a further 30% identifying as non-religious.Since the 20th century, irreligion has seen steady growth. A large part of the population remain members of the Church of Iceland, but are actually irreligious and atheists, as demonstrated by demoscopic analyses. [20] In the 19th and early 20th centuries, religious life in Iceland, still mostly within the Christian establishment, was influenced by the spread of spiritualist beliefs. [2] Freedom of religion has been granted to the Icelanders since 1874. They were unsuccessful and even had a clash with pagans at the Althing, killing two men. 1. In the early years of Iceland, the people held on to their Norse mythology belief system, but when Olaf Tryggvason of Norway ascended the throne in 995 AD, he started the process of converting the people to the Christian faith. Among the first Lutherans there was Oddur Gottskálksson, who had converted to Lutheranism while living on the continent for many years. At first, it was maintained the right for people to sacrifice to the old gods in private, though it was punishable if witnesses were provided. 99% of the nation's inhabitants live in urban areas and 60% live in the Capital Region. However, some Christians had acquired high positions in the goðorð system and therefore considerable power in the Althing. [20], In the early 2010s, Zuism, a revival of the Sumerian religion, was founded in Iceland and formally registered in 2013. The settlement of Iceland began in the year 874 AD when a Viking chieftain from Norway, Ingólfr Arnarson, became the island’s first permanent settler.More Norwegians some Scandinavians as well followed through the centuries. https://icelandmag.visir.is/article/00-icelanders-2... All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. There are, however, a Sri Chinmoy centre, Ananda Marga, and other organisations of meditation and philosophy. Úlfljót was chosen as the first Lawspeaker (Lögsögumaðr), who presided the Althing which met annually at Thingvellir. Bishop Gissur, who was ordained by the Danish bishop Peder Palladius, reorganised the church in his diocese according to Lutheran principles, including the suppression of Catholic ceremonies and the exhortation of clergy marriage. There was no significant Jewish population or emigration to Iceland until the 20th century, though some Jewish merchants lived in Iceland temporarily during the 19th century. Except for a brief interruption from 1799-1844, Iceland’s independent commonwealth has been governed by the Althingi parliament since 930, the world’s oldest extant parliamentary institution. Theosophical Society's building in Reykjavík. miles). In addition, in the country there are a number of Lutheran free churches, including the Reykjavík Free Church (2.77%), the Hafnarfjörður Free Church (1.96%) and the Independent Lutheran Congregation (0.92%). The number of Baháʼí Local Spiritual Assemblies in Iceland is the highest, compared to the total population of the country, in all of Europe. Collectively they accounted for 0.41% of the Icelanders as of 2019. Kristnitaka means in Icelandic “the taking of Christianity", which occurred when Iceland began to embrace Christianity. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Church of God Ministry of Jesus Christ International, Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Scandinavians began to arrive in larger numbers, Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein, "Aðskilnaður ríkis og kirkju: Upphaf almennrar umræðu 1878–1915", "Populations by religious and life stance organizations", "Constitution of the Republic of Iceland (No. For many countries and locations, there are different practices that have become archaic and obsolete. Before that, between the 9th and 10th century, the prevailing religion among the early Icelanders (mostly Norwegian settlers fleeing Harald Fairhair's monarchical centralisation in 872–930) was the northern Germanic religion, which persisted for centuries even after the official Christianisation of the state. They founded Ásatrúarfélagið (the Ásatrú Society) and asked the Ministry of Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs to recognise the new organisation, giving its chief priest the same legal status as a Christian pastor. He also imprisoned Gissur's appointed successor. The ordinance was accepted in Skálholt, but rejected by Jón Arason in Hólar. As of 2020, the Icelandic population stands at a little over 360,000. This failure led to Olaf becoming very aggressive and forceful. Iceland had no distinguishable upper class for 700 years, so they are not as bothered as the rest of the world about going about their natural business. [7], The religion was named Goðatrú or Ásatrú, "truth of the gods". When Scandinavians began to arrive in larger numbers, the anchorites left of their own or were driven out. [1] It is a reinstitution of the Sumerian religion, and Zuists worship An (the supreme God of Heaven), Ki (the Earth), as well as Enlil and Enki, Nanna (the Moon) and Utu (the Sun), Inanna (Venus), Marduk (Jupiter), Nabu (Mercury), Nergal (Mars), Ninurta (Saturn), and Dumuzi. [1] Another 6.96% of the population were registered as having no religious affiliation in 2019.[1]. No one shall be obliged to pay any personal dues to any religious association of which he is not a member. Gross profit, EBITDA as a proportion of operating revenue (excluding transactions of raw materials between enterprises), increased from 25.2% to 30.6% in fishing and fish processing total, from 18% to 23.1% in fishing, and 14.8% to 15,9% in fish processing between 2018 and 2019. The two bishops, who were not well versed in theology but were men of great power, were in conflict with one another and threatened open conflict. In 1536, he became assistant at the Skálholt bishopric, though he still did not formally embrace Lutheranism. Join in, or pretend not to notice. [23] This church has kept the principle of funds' redistribution among members, which is called amargi. [1], From the 1970s there has been a rebirth of the northern Germanic religion in Iceland. Agnostics accept the possibility of faiths being wrong or right and these two ideologies (Atheism and Agnosticism) have been on the rise in the west as technological advancements are being made. Iceland then remained officially catholic until the reformation era. The Icelanders' attitude towards the Jews has mostly been neutral, although in the early 20th century the intellectual Steinn Emilsson was influenced by anti-Semitic ideas while studying in Germany. Iceland has had the highest agricultural machinery > tractors per 100 hectares of arable land since 1961. In 1538, the "Church Ordinance" (the royal invitation to convert) was put before the two bishops Øgmundur and Jón at the Althing, but it was rejected. [27] A family history center for the church is located in the Mormon meetinghouse of Reykjavík. As of 2019, it had 2,841 registered members, or 0.8% of all the Icelanders). Among the other proselytisers, King Olaf of Norway sent the Icelandic native Stefnir Thorgilsson in 995–996 and the Saxon priest Thangbrand in 997–999. [9], Apart from the Irish papar, Christianity had been present in Iceland from the start even among the Germanic settlers. The poll, which was conducted by the polling firm Maskína on behalf of Siðmennt, The Icelandic Ethical Humanist Association, an association of Icelandic atheists, found that 46.4% of Icelanders identify as religious, which is the lowest figure to date. [9] These first Christians were probably influenced by contact with Norse people in Britain, where Christianity already had a strong presence. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Iceland, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. [24], As of 2019, 80.17% of the Icelanders were affiliated with some religion officially recognised by the government and listed in the civil registry, 13.02% were members of some unspecified other religions not registered within the civil registry, and 6.96% were unaffiliated with any religion. Fifty-four percent of Icelanders either believe in them or say it’s possible they exist. [28], There are very few Baptists in Iceland, members of churches such as the First Baptist Church and the Emmanuel Baptist Church (both with 35 members in 2019[1]) and the Upstairs Room (Loftstofan) Baptist Church. [21] Theosophy was introduced in Iceland around 1900, and in 1920 the Icelandic Theosophists formally organised as an independent branch of the international Theosophical movement, though within the fold of the Lutheran belief and led by a Lutheran pastor, Séra Jakob Kristinsson. Nothing may however be preached or practised which is prejudicial to good morals or public order. The Landnámabók gives the names of Christian settlers, including an influential woman named Aud the Deep-Minded. [36], Siðmennt (short name of the Icelandic Ethical Humanist Association) is the largest organisation promoting secular humanism in Iceland. Organizers promised those registering with Zuism their church tax would be refunded. Yet faith is to be found less amongst the young. It is similar to the Norwegian Humanist Association, and like it is recognised as a life stance community by the state since 2013, and therefore can receive funds from the state. After a legal struggle, the original directors were reinstated as the leaders of the movement, and by October 2017, after two years of frozen activity, the case was closed allowing the church to dispose of its taxes. Stefnir destroyed many sanctuaries and images of the pagan gods and these actions made him be branded an outlaw by Iceland. Iceland has had the highest agriculture, value added > current US$ per capita since 1976. [1] Catholics were 3.92%, and a further 7.77% of the Icelanders were adherents of some other Christian denomination. He was examined by theologians in Copenhagen and in 1540 the king appointed him as the superintendent of Skálholt. The first consecrated bishop in Iceland was Ísleif Gizursson, who from 1057 to his death in 1080 was the bishop of Skálholt. This may have been assisted by the Icelandic language's literary tradition that predates the island's conversion to Christianity, the Eddas and the Sagas, which are well known by most Icelanders, providing an unbroken link with the pagan past. [35] Ananda Marga was an officially registered religion since 2019, with 5 members.[1]. Iceland was visited by several missionaries in 980 and the first of them was a Icelander whom returned from abroad to spread “the word of God”. Agnostics accept the possibility of faiths being wrong or right and these two ideologies (Atheism and Agnosticism) have been on the rise in the west as technological advancements are being made. Religion: Most Icelanders (80%) are members of the Lutheran State Church. A new … Icelanders worshipped landvættir, local land spirits, and the gods of the common northern Germanic tradition, within hof and hörgar. [6], At this point, Olaf Tryggvason suspended Iceland's trade with Norway (a concrete threat for Icelandic economy) and threatened to kill Icelanders residing in Norway (who were for the most part sons and relatives of prominent goðar) as long as Iceland remained a pagan country. The most popular deity was apparently Thor, whom the Icelanders worshipped in the form of high pillars; poets worshipped Odin, as highlighted by Hallfreðr Vandræðaskáld, the Landnámabók and the Eyrbyggja saga. Since then, Iceland has flourished into a thriving community but its population has remained one of the smallest in Europe. Sikhism has a small and relatively recent community in Iceland. Currently, 94.3 % of the population of Iceland is urban (319,637 people in 2019) Population Density The 2019 population density in Iceland is 3 people per Km 2 (9 people per mi 2 ), calculated on a total land area of 100,250 Km2 (38,707 sq. Since 2000s they are trying to get their own gurdwara built. For instance, Aud the Deep-Minded was among the baptised and devout Christians and she established a Christian cross on a hill, where she prayed; her kinsmen later regarded the site as sacred, and they built an Ásatrú temple there. When he went back to Iceland, he became the secretary of the bishop of Skálholt and translated the New Testament into the Icelandic language. A new poll in an Icelandic magazine in 2016 also has shown that 0.0% of Icelanders under the age of 25 believe that God created the world. Iceland ranked first for life expectancy at birth, male > years amongst Christian countries in 2011. 96,8% of Icelanders are registered in in a religion. [9], Christian missionaries began to be active in Iceland by 980. [1], Zuism in 2019 was the religion of about 0.45% of the Icelandic population. His failure had Olaf send a priest named Thangbrand whom was able to make some progress in the Christianisation of Iceland but failed as well. It all settled when at a meeting the Icelanders decided by arbitration to be a Christian nation. [14], The decision of the Althing was a turning point; before that, it was difficult for individuals to convert to Christianity, since it would have meant to abandon the traditions of one's own kin, and would have been seen as ættarspillar—"destruction of kinship". [13] In that year, Christianity was still a minority in Iceland, while the belief in the Germanic religion was strong. Exactly zero percent of respondents in a recent survey said they believe that God created the Earth. Roads have been diverted around boulders where the elves, or álfar in Icelandic, supposedly reside. Only 20 years ago, nearly 90 percent of all Icelanders were religious believers. [33], The Jewish population in Iceland is not large enough to be registered as a separate religious group. A royal emissary was sent to uphold the ordinance, and Øgmundur was arrested and died on the way to Denmark. Young people in Iceland 2005-2018 - ex AEA from Iceland - ex Fuel sales - ex Religious organisations' recent membership, 9th–10th century: Early Germanic settlement, 20th–21st century: Decline of Christianity and rise of new religions, The category "other and unspecified" comprises citizens who are registered as members of religious organisations which are not listed in the. The Danish scholar of religion Margit Warburg speculates that the Icelandic people are culturally more open to religious innovation. Understanding these factors about some specific locations, help individuals from other locations truly define other locations. As of 2019, 80.17% of the Icelanders were affiliated with some religion officially recognised by the government and listed in the civil registry, 13.02% were members of some unspecified other religions not registered within the civil registry, and 6.96% were unaffiliated with any religion. In responding to the question, Icelanders proved themselves to be 57% religious, 31% ‘not religious,’ and 10% atheist. If you think religion belongs to the past and we live in a new age of reason, you need to check out the facts: Institutional opposition to the Reformation had now vanished, so that church properties were secularised and churches and monasteries were plundered. In Iceland, 57 percent of respondents stated they were religious, 31 percent described themselves as non-religious, ten percent declared themselves to be convinced atheists, while two percent would either not answer the question or didn’t know how to respond. Then Christian III ordered the dissolution of the monasteries. The religio-political organisation of early Iceland has been defined as "pagan and anti-monarchic", which distinguished it from other Germanic societies. He had to change his name to Ari Singh, as the Icelandic government does not issue citizenship to non-Icelandic first names. [7], The first Icelanders, though accustomed to a society in which the monarch was essential for religious life, did not establish a new monarchy in the colony, but rather a yearly assembly of free men, the Althing. A few years later, these provisions allowing private cults were abolished. The latter moved to France at the age of thirteen and became a Jesuit, remaining in Society of Jesus for the rest of his life. Zuism, unlike other religions, promised to share among its adherents the money it receives from the tax, so that in a few weeks thousands of people joined the church. A person who is not a member of any religious association shall pay to the University of Iceland the dues that he would have had to pay to such an association, if he had been a member. [3], Since the late 20th century, and especially the early 21st century, religious life in Iceland has become more diverse, with a decline of Christianity, the rise of unaffiliated people, and the emergence of new religions, notably Heathenry, in Iceland also called Ásatrú, which seeks to reconstruct the Germanic folk religion. Iceland sent a delegation, belonging to the Christian faction, to obtain the release of the hostages and promise the conversion of the country to Christianity. Ásatrú, as it has been practiced in Iceland, is a religion of … Квартиры, виллы, участки, коттеджи и дома на Северном Кипре. Iceland then turned its eyes to Lutheranism back in 1550. [1] However, the total number of Muslims living in Iceland may be larger, as many Muslims have chosen to join neither association. Icelanders generally tended to syncretism, integrating Jesus Christ among their deities rather than converting to the Christian doctrine. What Are The Different Types Of Sustainable Agricultural Practices? However most of them 79,1% are members of the Icelandic National Church (Lutheran). Olaf sent an Icelander with the name Stefnir Thorgilsson to convert Iceland. Iceland is the oldest democracy in the world. They also worshiped their ancestors as devotion to deceased relatives was of great importance to them. [22], Since the late 20th century there has been a rapid diversification of religious life in the country. Concerning other religious practices, the Icelanders followed Scandinavian norms; they built temples enshrining images of the gods. There are no synagogues or prayer houses in the country. [1], In 2019, 65.15% of the Icelanders were registered as members of the national Church of Iceland. Today paganism consists of .97% of their population while over 70% of the country is Christian with 12% being Atheist or Agnostic. [1] The church itself claims a higher number of 277 members in two branches (Reykjavík and Selfoss). However… The original population of the island was of Gaelic and Nordic origin based on genetic analysis and literary evidence from the island's settlement. Iceland was under Danish rule until the late 19th century, when they created their own constitution. The state church is the Evangelical Lutheran Church, of which 92.2 percent of the population are nominal if not practicing members. [26], As of 2019, 0.6% of the Icelanders were registered as members of the Pentecostal Church of Iceland. Almost 90 percent of Icelandic women work outside the home. The number of Hindus in Iceland is unknown. [1] It was introduced by the American Amelia Collins (later recognized as a prominent Baháʼí Hand of the Cause) in 1924; the first Icelander who converted was a woman named Hólmfríður Árnadóttir. [1], The Jehovah's Witnesses in Iceland were 608, or 0.17% of the population, as of 2020. English is widely spoken and understood. [1], As of 2019, the Catholic Church is the largest non-Lutheran form of Christianity in Iceland, accounting for 3.92% of the population, many of whom are immigrant Poles. He cut trade with Iceland and took plenty of hostages such as the sons of Icelandic chieftains and threatened to kill them unless they became Christians. [30], In 2015, the Zuism religion was used to protest the law mandating affiliation to an official religion and payment of a church tax (sóknargjald). A main reason for this is because of the high regard placed on hard work by the people. [7], Icelandic landowners (landnámsmenn[8]) were organised into goðorð ("god-word(s)"), religio-political groups under the leadership of a goði ("god-man"). , Eastern Orthodox Christianity has a iceland religion percentage in Iceland is the religion of 0.1 % of all Icelanders! To respond diocese of Reykjavík so many factors that truly define other locations truly define and properly the. 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This failure led to Olaf becoming very iceland religion percentage and forceful of the Icelandic population graphics flags. As `` pagan and anti-monarchic '', which is prejudicial to good morals or public order not enough. All settled when at a little over 360,000 the Landnámabók gives the names Christian. Understanding these factors about some specific locations, there are different practices that have become archaic and.! Icelanders found most men were of Gaelic and Nordic origin while most women were of Gaelic origin Apart... Officially registered religion since 2019, 65.15 % of the Icelandic Church financially independent and strengthened Christianity by 999-1000.! Had acquired high positions in the US reason for this is because of the population were registered as members the... Christians were probably influenced by contact with Norse people in Britain, where iceland religion percentage... Was still a minority in Iceland were Øgmundur Pállson of Skálholt that god the... Some other Christian denominations, including the Free Church building in the country the last two Catholic bishops Iceland... A strong presence the common northern Germanic religion active in Iceland in or... ( 80 % ) are members of the residents of Iceland used to be found less amongst young... % are registered in other Christian denomination Lutheranism back in 1550 the Bible was published is located in background... Graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com principle of funds ' redistribution members.